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Racism in Medicine and Healthcare

For University of Arizona College of Medicine- Tucson

Race and Racism

Dorothy Roberts. (2011). Fatal Invention : How Science, Politics, and Big Business Re-create Race in the Twenty-First Century. The New Press.  Chapter 1: The Invention of Race

Scientific Racism

Washington, H. (2006). Medical apartheid : The dark history of medical experimentation on Black Americans from colonial times to the present. New York: Harlem Moon.  Chapter 1: Southern Discomfort

Braun, Lundy, Fausto-Sterling, Anne, Fullwiley, Duana, Hammonds, Evelynn M, Nelson, Alondra, Quivers, William, . . . Shields, Alexandra E. (2007). Racial Categories in Medical Practice: How Useful Are They? PLoS Medicine,4(9), E271.

Timeline of Scientific Racism and Trait Files (Asian Pacific American Institute, NYU)

Affirmative Care Across Cultures: Broadening Application

Mendoza, N. S., Moreno, F. A., Hishaw, G. A., Gaw, A. C., Fortuna, L. R., Skubel, A., . . . Gallegos, A. (2020). Affirmative Care Across Cultures: Broadening Application. FOCUS, 18(1), 31-39. doi:10.1176/appi.focus.20190030

Eugenics and Scientific Racism (National  Human Genome Research Institute)

Scientific Racism (Harvard Library)

Eugenics and Reproductive Control

Nolte, K. (2008). Carcinoma Uteri and 'Sexual Debauchery'-Morality, Cancer and Gender in the Nineteenth CenturySocial History of Medicine : The Journal of the Society for the Social History of Medicine, 21(1), 31-46.

Briggs, L. (2002). Reproducing Empire (1st ed., Vol. 11, American Crossroads). University of California Press.  Chapter 3: Debating Reproduction Birth Control, Eugenics, and Overpopulation in Puerto Rico, 1920–1940

Roberts, D. (1997). Killing the black body : Race, reproduction, and the meaning of liberty (1st ed.). New York: Pantheon Books.  Chapter 2: The Dark Side of Birth Control.

Transvaginal Mesh

No Mas Bebes (documentary)

Code Names and Secret Lives: How a Radical Underground Network Helped Women Get Abortions Before They Were Legal

JANE Collective (recording)

Institutionalization and Ableism

Rembis, M. (2018). Disability and the History of Eugenics. In The Oxford Handbook of Disability History (1st ed., Oxford Handbooks, pp. The Oxford Handbook of Disability History, 2018-12-06). Oxford University Press.

Thomas, G. M., & Rothman, B. K. (2016). Keeping the Backdoor to Eugenics Ajar?: Disability and the Future of Prenatal Screening. AMA J Ethics, 18(4), 406-415. doi:10.1001/journalofethics.2016.18.4.stas1-1604.

Nehring, W. M., & Lindsey, B. (2016). History of Health Care for People with Intellectual and Developmental Disability. In I. L. Rubin, J. Merrick, D. E. Greydanus, & D. R. Patel (Eds.), Health Care for People with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities across the Lifespan (pp. 33-46). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Krahn, Gloria L, Walker, Deborah Klein, & Correa-De-Araujo, Rosaly. (2015). Persons With Disabilities as an Unrecognized Health Disparity Population. American Journal of Public Health (1971), 105(S2), S198-S206.

“Willowbrook” a Geraldo Rivera Expose (recording)

Ted Talk, “I’m not your inspiration” - Stella Young (recording)

The Kids are All Right

The Gender Binary

Drescher, J. (2015). Queer diagnoses revisited: The past and future of homosexuality and gender diagnoses in DSM and ICD. Int Rev Psychiatry, 27(5), 386-395. doi:10.3109/09540261.2015.1053847

Plemons, E. (2018). NOT HERE. Catholic Hospital Systems and the Restriction Against Transgender Healthcare.  Cross Currents (New Rochelle, N.Y.), 68(4), 533-549.

Fausto-Sterling, A. (1993). The five sexes: Why male and female are not enough. The Sciences (New York), 33(2), 20.

Infobase, film distributor, & Home Box Office. (1993). And the Band Played On.

interACT- Advocate for Intersex Youth


Brave Heart, Maria Yellow Horse, Chase, Josephine, Elkins, Jennifer, & Altschul, Deborah B. (2011). Historical Trauma Among Indigenous Peoples of the Americas: Concepts, Research, and Clinical Considerations. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 43(4), 282-290.

Goodkind, Jessica R, Hess, Julia Meredith, Gorman, Beverly, & Parker, Danielle P. (2012). We’re Still in a Struggle. Qualitative Health Research, 22(8), 1019-1036.

Native Communities Face Higher Risks During Coronavirus Pandemic Thanks to Legacy of Colonization. Teen Vogue.

Adelman, L. (Director). (2008). Bad Sugar [Video file]. California Newsreel. From Kanopy.

Adelman, L. (Director). (2008). Collateral Damage [Video file]. California Newsreel. From Kanopy.

Third World Newsreel , publisher, film distributor. (1996). Palante, siempre palante! : The Young Lords.

Medical Education

Friesen, P. (2018). Educational pelvic exams on anesthetized women: Why consent matters. Bioethics, 32(5), 298-307.

Harriet, A. W. (2006). Medical Apartheid : The Dark History of Medical Experimentation on Black Americans From Colonial Times to the Present. New York: Anchor. Chapter 5: The Restless Dead

Podcast: Diagnosing Our National Disease. AAMC

Nieblas-Bedolla, Edwin, Christophers, Briana, Nkinsi, Naomi T, Schumann, Paul D, & Stein, Elizabeth. (2020). Changing How Race Is Portrayed in Medical Education: Recommendations From Medical Students. Academic Medicine, 95(12), 1802-1806.

Podcast: Addressing Race and Racism in Medical Education. Academic Medicine

Medical Research

Harriet, A. W. (2006). Medical Apartheid : The Dark History of Medical Experimentation on Black Americans From Colonial Times to the Present. New York: Anchor. Chapter 2: Profitable Wonders

Harmon, A. (2010).  Indian Tribe Wins Fight to Limit Research of Its DNA. The New York Times.

Infobase, film distributor, & Home Box Office. (1997). Miss Evers' Boys.

Greely, Henry T, & Cho, Mildred K. (2013). The Henrietta Lacks legacy grows. EMBO Reports, 14(10), 849.

Native Peoples Technical Assistance Office

Gachupin, F., UA Native American Advancement, Initiatives & Research, Tribal Consultation.

Tribal Institutional Review Boards

Population Surveillance

Espinosa, M. (2014). The Question of Racial Immunity to Yellow Fever in History and Historiography. Social Science History, 38(3-4), 437-453.

Mcmillen, C. W. (2008). "The Red Man and the White Plague": Rethinking Race, Tuberculosis, and American Indians, ca. 1890-1950. Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 82(3), 608-645.

AAMC Calls for Enhanced COVID-19 Data Collection on Health Disparities

King, R. C. (2000). Racialization, Recognition, and Rights: Lumping and Splitting Multiracial Asian Americans in the 2000 Census. Journal of Asian American Studies, 3(2), 191-217.

Nguyen, Tam H, Nguyen, Thuc-Nhi, Fischer, Taylor, Ha, Won, & Tran, Thanh V. (2015). Type 2 diabetes among Asian Americans: Prevalence and prevention. World Journal of Diabetes, 6(4), 543-547.

Princeton University, Department of History. Pandemic, Creating a Usable Past: Epidemic History, COVID-19, and the Future of Health. Session 5 | Uncertain Knowledge in Epidemics: How Crises Spur New Therapies, Surveillance Practices, and Dubious Theories

U.S. National Library of Medicine Exhibit:  This Lead is Killing Us