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Google Patents covers the entire collection of granted patents and published patent applications from the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) and the European Patent Office (EPO). U.S. patent documents date back to 1790, while EPO patents go back to 1978. Google Patents uses the Cooperative Patent Classification (CPC).
A patent is the intellectual property right granted by the U.S. Government to an inventor "to exclude others from making, using, offering for sale, or selling the invention throughout the U.S. or importing the invention into the U.S." for a limited time in exchange for public disclosure of the invention when the patent is granted. In most cases, this is twenty years from the date of application. In some situations, the term of the patent may be extended due to delays in the processing of the application. After the patent has expired, the invention becomes public domain. In addition, patent owners must pay a maintenance fee at 3.5, 7.5, and 11.5 years after issue or else the patent will expire.
"A technical report (also scientific report) is a document that describes the process, progress, or results of technical or scientific research or the state of a technical or scientific research problem. It might also include recommendations and conclusions of the research. Unlike other scientific literature, such as scientific journals and the proceedings of some academic conferences, technical reports rarely undergo comprehensive independent peer review before publication. They may be considered grey literature. Where there is a review process, it is often limited to within the originating organization. Similarly, there are no formal publishing procedures for such reports, except where established locally." - from Wikipedia
Includes 200 million pages of science information and R&D results for 36+ U.S. government agencies
TRAIL (Technical Report Archive and Image Library)
Has detailed reports that include materials data, mathematical functions, time series, diffraction patterns, measurements, and much more. The data provided are from direct measurements. Among other historical technical reports, TRAIL currently contains the following report series:
U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, Civil Effects Test Operations (AEC-CEX)
U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, Lovelace Foundation for Medical Education and Research (AEC-LF)
U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, Health and Safety Laboratory (AEC-HASL)
U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, Radiation Instruments Branch (AEC-RIB)
U.S. National Bureau of Standards. Monographs
U.S. Bureau of Mines Bulletin
Also includes the information within Science.gov (listed above) and is a gateway to national and international scientific databases. You can search resources from 17 countries.
Students, faculty, and staff have full access to the ASTM and IEEE standards databases. The Global IHS database can be searched to find other current standards. Anystandard that is needed for a class project or research can be acquired for UA faculty, staff, or students by contacting Paula Johnson for assistance. Please send the standard number, title and any other useful information to email@example.com.
Find engineering standards.
NOTE: Standards (in electronic or print format) needed for class projects or research can be ordered for UA faculty, staff, or students. For assistance, please contact us.
Whys & hows of patent searching
You have an idea for an invention — or have gone so far as to create a prototype. Before marketing your invention, you will need to determine if your invention has already been patented. To do this, conduct a thorough patent search. This will usually involve searching a number of different patent sites, so it's useful to keep a log of all your search activity to avoid duplicate efforts.